Acute Pain - The normal, predicted physiological response to an adverse chemical, thermal, or mechanical stimulus associated with surgery, trauma, and acute illness. It is generally time-limited and is responsive to Opioid therapy, among other therapies.
Addiction - A neurobehavioral syndrome with genetic and environmental influences that results in psychological dependence on the use of substances for their psychic effects and is characterized by compulsive use despite harm. Addiction may also be referred to by terms such as "drug dependence", "drug addiction" and "psychological dependence". Physical dependence and tolerance are normal physiological consequences of extended Opioid therapy for Pain and should not be considered addiction.
Allo means "other" in Greek and is a common prefix for medical conditions that diverge from the expected. Odynia is derived from the Greek word "odune" or "odyne," which is used in "pleurodynia" and "coccydynia" and is similar in meaning to words with -algia or -algesia in them. See also hyperalgesia and hyperpathia.
Analgesic Tolerance - The need to increase the dose of opioid (pain killer or reliever) to achieve the same level of analgesia. Analgesic Tolerance may or may not be evident during opioid treatment and does not equate with addiction.
Chronic Pain - A pain state which is persistent and in which the cause of the pain cannot always be removed or is difficult to treat. Chronic Pain may be associated with a long term incurable or intractable medical condition or disease.
Hyperaesthesia - Increased sensitivity to stimulation, excluding the special senses. The stimulus and locus should be specified and may refer to various modes of cutaneous sensibility including touch and thermal sensation without pain, as well as to pain.
Hyperpathia - A painful syndrome characterized by an abnormally painful reaction to a stimulus, especially a repetitive stimulus, as well as an increased threshold. It may occur with allodynia, hyperesthesia, hyperalgesia, or dysesthesia.
Pain - An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. The inability to communicate verbally does not negate the possibility that an individual is experiencing pain and is in need of appropriate pain-relieving treatment. Notes: Pain is always subjective. Each individual learns the application of the word through experiences related to injury in early life. Biologists recognize that those stimuli which cause pain are liable to damage tissue. Accordingly, pain is that experience we associate with actual or potential tissue damage. It is unquestionably a sensation in a part or parts of the body, but it is also always unpleasant and therefore also an emotional experience. Experiences which resemble pain but are not unpleasant, e.g., pricking, should not be called pain. Unpleasant abnormal experiences (dysesthesias) may also be pain but are not necessarily so because, subjectively, they may not have the usual sensory qualities of pain.
Physical Dependence - A controlled substance is a physiologic state of neuro-addiction which is characterized by the emergence of a withdrawal syndrome if drug use is stopped or decreased abruptly, or if an antagonist is administered. Physical Dependence is an expected result of Opioid use. Physical Dependence, by itself, does not equate with addiction.
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